|1894 map of Cortland|
The Cortland Democrat, Friday, April 7, 1893.
THE SEWER SYSTEM.
Report and Estimates by Civil Engineer Wm. B. Landreth.
The following is the report of Civil Engineer William B. Landreth to board of sewer commissioners, in regard to a system of sewerage for Cortland:
SCHENECTADY, October 18, 1892.
The Sewer Commissioners, Cortland, N. Y.:
GENTLEMEN—In accordance with your instructions of Aug. 26th, I have prepared a plan of sewerage for your village and now present my report thereon. The surveys and levels have been made by Mr. Frank Place, your city engineer; and accurate bench marks have been established on every street for future use. Accompanying this report will be found (1)—A map of the village on a scale of 200 feet to the inch, on which are shown the size, rate and position of the proposed sewers; contour lines being shown for every foot elevation for the flat portion and every five feet for the hilly; (2)—Profiles of the streets bound in atlas form, showing the size, rate and depth of all sewers as well as manholes, flushtanks, etc.; (3)—Detail drawings of manholes, flushtanks, catchbasins, lampholes and house connections. (4)—Plans of disposal works, showing position and kind of all tanks and machinery; (5)—Forms of contract, bond and specification for the sewers and disposal works; (6)—An estimate of the cost of the work. In addition to the originals, I have furnished the state board of health with full copies of everything, and your board with two blue print copies of maps and plans.
The village of Cortland lies in a broad valley at the confluence of the two main branches of the Tioughnioga river, the west branch of the river forming the easterly boundary of the built up portions. Several small streams cross the village site and enter the main stream, forming secondary valleys of slight depth. A circular hill about 3,000 feet in diameter at the base and 120 feet high rises from the main valley in the western part of the village on which is placed the standpipe of the Water Works Co. From the base of the hill the land slopes in all directions towards the various water courses, the general slope being about six inches in one hundred feet.
STORM AND ROOF WATER.
The storm water is readily carried in the street gutters to the nearest stream and for a fraction of the cost of building large conduits for its removal. But little grading is required on any street except two blocks on Pomeroy-st. to carry the street water off in the gutters.
The subsoil is a very coarse gravel, with little or no clay. Except when frozen, the open subsoil carries off the water falling upon it very quickly, and in several cases the roof water from large business blocks is carried into wells in the cellar and runs away rapidly into the gravel.
The level of the ground water varies with the rainfall, and in the vicinity of the brooks rises nearly to the surface, causing pollution of wells and cellars by the filth from the neighboring cess pool or vault. The roof water from nearly all houses is carried into the cistern whence it overflows into the ground, causing no inconvenience or damage.
POPULATION, AREAS, ETC.
The village limits cover an area of about 2,500 acres, with about 1,500 acres in the populated portion, traversed by 26 miles of streets. The population has been given as follows: 1870, 3,060; 1880, 4,056, a gain in 10 years of 30 per cent; 1890, 8,590, a gain in 10 years of 112 per cent. Ignoring the phenomenal character of the last decade, and assuming the future rate of increase to be 33 per cent, in ten years we will have the following population: 1900, 11,450; 1910, 15,260; 1920, 20,350; 1930, 27,140; 1940, 36,188. These amounts are probably in excess of the population but will serve as a guide to the future needs of the village.
The plan submitted is designed to carry off all house and mill wastes, excluding all storm and roof water, with provisions for the chemical purification of the sewage when necessary. On a basis of one family of five persons for each fifty foot lot, using 120 gallons of water per day each, and assuming all the sewage to pass off in 16 hours, we will have about one half a cubic foot of sewage for each 100 feet of street as a maximum rate of flow. The sewers are designed to carry this amount of sewage and about ten per cent of ground water in addition. The grades are such as to give a velocity of from 2 to 2 1/2 feet per second when the sewers are running full or half full, and when flushed as contemplated, they will be self cleaning.
Manholes are placed at each corner or considerable change of direction, and lampholes at intermediate changes of grade. Flush tanks designed to hold 300 gallons and to empty automatically as often as desired are placed at the upper ends of all sewers. As all the streams except the west branch or the river proper are very small the only natural outlet for the sewers is the Tioughnioga river, and I have located it 200 feet south of Port Watson-st. bridge, at the head of a rift.
Starting at the river with a 24" pipe, the main sewer runs up the river road to Port Watson-st., to Pomeroy, to Elm, to Pendleton, where it reduces to 20". 20" pipe extends on Elm from Pendleton to Greenbush, up Greenbush to Clinton, where it changes to 18" thence up Railroad-ave., to Grant, to Main. At Main and Grant one 12" sewer runs south on Main to Madison, thence up Madison to Woodruff, and another 12" pipe runs north on Main to Homer-ave., thence to the fair-ground.
The main sewer just described drains all the village north of Port Watson-st., excepting a small portion along River-st., north of Elm, a block on Elm and one on Railroad-st [Central Ave.]
A sub-main 15" in diameter runs up Port Watson st. from Pomeroy to Main-st., where it is divided into 10" inch sewers on South Main and Tompkins-st. On other streets with few exceptions the sewers are eight inches in diameter.
The outlet into the river is below water. The cuts along the main sewer are from ten to twelve feet deep, with the exception of a few hundred feet near the corner of Main and Grant. At this point for about 400 feet, there is a maximum depth of 17 feet and one or two hundred feet between 12 and 17 feet. In the few instances where the cuts on any street are less than five feet, the proper grading of the street will increase the depth over the sewer. Iron pipes are used at all creek crossings, and are laid at sufficient depths to protect the sewer against damage from the stream.
I estimate the maximum cost of the 26 miles of separate sewers to be $120,000, though the contract price may not exceed $100,000. It is probable that only a portion of the sewers will need to be built in the next few years at an estimate cost of $60,000.
WM. B. LANDRETH, Engineer.
Oct. 18, 1892.
HERE AND THERE.
Don't fall to see the "Brownies" in the opera house next Tuesday and Wednesday evenings.
The King's Daughters will meet in their rooms, 9 Clinton-ave., Saturday, April 8th, at 2:30 P. M.
Archie LeFevre has sold his interest in the North Main-st. meat market to his partner, Mr. Blackwell.
Mr. D. E. Call has purchased the residence of Mr. John Givins on Tompkins street. Consideration, $5,000.
Milford C. Bean, Esq., has been appointed postmaster at McGrawville, in place of Chas. A. Jones, resigned.
The annual meeting of the Wlllard Y.'s will be held with Mrs. Wm. Hill, 49 Port Watson street, Saturday evening, April 8.
Daniel E. Smith, Esq., has purchased the residence of the late Wm. P. Randall, corner of Tompkins and Owego-st. Consideration, $8,000.
Will you see "Side Tracked" in the opera house, on Saturday evening? Tickets on sale at Wallace's for 35, 50 and 75 cents.
The music written and composed by Prof. Leonard for the "Brownies," is very fine and will be sure to please our music-loving citizens. Don't fail to hear it.
"Side Tracked" is the name of the play to be produced in the opera house to-morrow evening. It is a railroad comedy and is said to be first class in all respects.
The public schools of this place closed last Friday for the spring vacation. They will reopen Monday, April 17th, instead of next Monday, as has been published.
C. F. Thompson has a new advertisement on our third page. Seed time is approaching and farmers will do well to read the advertisement and then give him a call.
The National Pure Soup Company will serve hot soup to everybody at C. F. Thompson's grocery, in the Grand Central block, every day next week. All are invited.
Mr. C. F. Thompson went to Syracuse on Tuesday afternoon, for 10,000 trout fry from the State hatchery. The little fellows were placed in the streams hereabouts on Wednesday.
The Teachers' Institute, to be held in Marathon during the week beginning April 24th, will be a County Institute instead of a district affair, and all teachers are required to attend.
The Cortland Spring and Gear Company have leased the pottery buildings on Groton avenue, and are moving their stock from their present location on Homer avenue to their new quarters.
The evening services of all the churches in this place except the First Methodist, Free Methodist, Grace and the Universalist, open at 7:30 o'clock. Vespers at St. Mary's at 7:30 instead of 4 P. M.
The regular semi-monthly mothers' meeting (west) will be held at the residence of Mrs. C. Shaw, 25 Squires street, Thursday, April 18th, at 3 P. M. Subject, "Child Life in France and Germany." All ladles are invited.
Mr. Daniel McNish has purchased an interest in the meat market of H. E. Andrews, on Owego-st., and took possession April 1st. The new firm intend to enlarge their business in the near future, and will keep everything to be found in a first-class market.
The "Brownies" have arrived in town and will appear in the opera house next Tuesday and Wednesday evenings. Those who fail to attend will miss a rich treat. Reserved seats 50 cts., general admission 35 cts. Children under 12 years of age, 25 cts. to all parts of the house.
G. D. Goddard, who lately purchased the Empire House in this place, has refurnished the house in first-class style. The latest addition, in the line of furnishing, is a beautiful square piano, purchased of H. J. McElheny of Homer, and placed in the hotel parlor for the accommodation and pleasure of his music-loving guests. Mr. Goddard is a model landlord and has made hosts of friends since coming to Tully.—Tully Times.