Sunday, November 19, 2017


Cortland Evening Standard, Tuesday, January 8, 1895.

English and American Correspondents Unite In Denouncing the Butchery of Helpless Captives—The Atrocities of Port Arthur Retold.
   LONDON, Jan. 8.—The Times today publishes a letter from Kobe, Japan, describing the Port Arthur atrocities. The writer says:
   "The English and American military attaches witnessed the scene from Boulder hill and were equally amazed and horrified as myself at what they described as a gratuitous ebullition of barbarism.
   "The atrocities were not confined to Wednesday. Thursday, Friday, Saturday and Sunday were spent by the soldiery from dawn to dark in murder and pillage, in mutilation of every conceivable kind, and in nameless atrocities until the town became a ghastly inferno, to be remembered with a fearsome shudder until one's dying day.
   "The corpses of women, children and men were strewn in the streets in hundreds, perhaps thousands, for we could not count them, some with not a limb unsevered; some with heads hacked, cut crosswise or split lengthwise; some ripped open, not by chance but with careful precision, down and across, disemboweled and dismembered, with occasionally a dagger or bayonet thrust into the lower part of the trunk.
   "I saw groups of prisoners tied together in a bunch with their hands behind their backs, riddled with bullets for five minutes and then hewn to pieces.
   "I saw a junk stranded on the beach, filled with fugitives of both sexes and all ages, struck by volley after volley, until I can say no more of all the awful sights of those four days. Why repeat them all in painful detail?"

Events in China.
   PARIS, Jan. 8.—A dispatch from Shanghai states that the Chinese envoys appointed to negotiate peace with Japan are instructed to accede to no demands for the surrender of Chinese territory. They will treat only on the basis of granting independence to Corea and paying an indemnity to Japan.
   The dispatch adds that the two Chinese generals, Chiang and Chen, who were reported by Li Hung Chang as having died heroically while facing the enemy at Port Arthur, have turned up unscratched.

   It would be interesting to know what sort of a pull the great armor plate manufacturing companies have with the United States government. The public wondered that the investigation of armor plate scandals of a year ago practically ended in nothing, and now when a batch of plating has been accepted by the government, although the specimen tested was penetrated by a ball, it would once more like to be able to understand what the pull is. In accepting the armor the secretary of the navy decided that the ballistic test was unusually severe, and at the same time the plate tried was unusually weak; therefore he would lump the difference and take the lot.
   But how will this decision affect the reputation abroad of our armor plate, now recognized to be the best in the world? It will not be so considered long under the ballistic strain of such decisions as this. At any time in a naval battle an enemy's shelling might be just as severe as that in the test; likewise a section of armor plate might easily "happen" to be just as weak as that one recently tried.

   What a fool it must make of a man to be an emperor! William of Germany wrote a common little bit of verse called "A Song to Aegir,'' the pagan lord of fruits. Immediately his subjects flattered him as though he had been greater than Goethe or Schiller, and 17 toadies in one week named their newly born sons "Aegir."

  Herr Singer, the Socialist Who Recently Created a Sensation in the Reichstag.
   Herr Paul Singer, the socialist leader in the German reichstag, who recently refused to cheer Emperor William, has long been a successful business man in Berlin. When President von Levetzow of the reichstag sternly censured the socialists because they did not rise to their feet in company with the other members and cheer the monarch who seems even at this late day to believe that the king can do no wrong, Herr Singer promptly retorted that he would never join in cheering for a man who told his soldiers that at his command they must fire upon their fellow citizens. This declaration caused a great uproar, and the prosecution of Herr Singer for lese majestie, or high treason, is within the possibilities.
   Herr Singer has represented one of the Berlin doctoral districts as a socialist since 1884 and has been "agin the government" for many years. He is described as being very successful in business, very obstinate, very shrewd, very charitable and very courageous. He is a Hebrew and has made a fortune in the manufacturing business, which he followed until his temporary expulsion from Berlin eight years ago. Since then he has devoted himself to political affairs and has been a thorn in the side of the government.
   A few years ago he became interested in the founding of a refuge for the homeless people of Berlin. This place provided shelter for all comers and did not require a certificate of good character on the part of the applicant. The refuge was a great success until the Berlin police began searching it frequently for suspicious characters. This procedure caused a decided falling off in the patronage, and Herr Singer informed the chief of police that the officers of the refuge would no longer tolerate the visits of his officers. "If you do not give me your pledge that their surveillance will cease, we shall close the refuge at once," he said. As the refuge was doing a great deal of good in Berlin, the chief was compelled to give the required pledge.

Work Being Pushed Hard to Complete the Electric Railroad.
   A STANDARD reporter, in company with Superintendent L. D. Garrison, this morning took a trip to the new power house of the Cortland & Homer Traction Co. It is a very busy place and work is being pushed forward with all speed for the completion of the building and its equipments. The house is located beside the Tioughnioga river and adjoining the D., L. & W. R. R. at the second railroad bridge between Cortland and Homer. The house itself is of brick, one story high with an iron truss frame and a slate roof. It consists of two buildings joined together in the form of a letter T. The main building which forms the top of the letter T is 50 by 80 feet in size and will be the engine room. The wing is 40 by 67 feet in size. Adjoining the engine room is the condensing room 12 by 40 feet in size. The east end of this building adjacent to the railroads tracks is used for a boiler room, which is 47 by 40 feet in size.
   The foundations are laid for all the machinery which is to be used in the plant. Two of the large boilers are already in place and work will begin to-morrow upon setting the other two, all of which are 125-horse power. They are to be run under a forced draught and will carry a pressure of 150 pounds to the square inch. They are manufactured by the Watertown Steam Engine Co. of Watertown, N. Y. The McClave grates with which all these boilers are fitted are a special feature of them and will greatly aid in economy of fuel.
   In the condensing room are two Worthington compound condensing engines. The water which is used is pumped up from a well which has been dug on the south side of the building. This is seven feet in diameter. It is dug lower than the bed of the river, which is only a few rods away and receives its water from the river. It is connected with the river by an eight-inch pipe and the water flows from the river into the well by force of gravity.
   None of the engines have yet been located in the engine room, but everything is ready for them, There are to be four new tandem, compound condensing engines of 150-horse power each and the two engines of 63-horse power each which are now used at the electric light station will be transferred to the new engine house as soon as possible. The new engines are also to be furnished by the Watertown Steam Engine Co. The new engines will be fitted with high pressure cylinders eleven inches in diameter and low pressure cylinders twenty inches in diameter. The stroke will be fourteen inches. It is expected that the new engines will arrive in about two weeks. Everything looks now as though it would be possible to get the electric cars in operation about Feb. 1.
   In case other things are ready and a delay would be likely to be caused by the failure of the new engines to appear, the Watertown company have an engine that they can and will ship to Cortland on two days notice. It will take but a few days to set it up and it can be used temporarily until the regular engines are ready.
   The work of setting up the machinery is being conducted under the supervision of Mr. C. N. Walsh, a representative of the Watertown company. This gentleman kindly took especial pains to explain to the reporter the plans for the operation of all the machinery. Mr. Walsh says that when completed the plant will be one of the finest in the country for one of its size and it will be fitted with everything needed for economical and effective service.
   The buildings present a fine appearance from the outside. They are handsomely constructed, all the trimmings being of yellow Milwaukee brick. The large smokestack, 110 feet high, is a conspicuous object for a long distance away. The D., L & W. R. R. have put in a switch which runs to the door of the boiler room.
   At the old car barn various repairs are in progress to fit them for the reception of the electric cars. It is necessary to be able to get under the cars, so that in the car shed all the dirt to a depth of three feet has been removed. The tracks are now placed upon a kind of trestle. It has also been necessary to raise the roof of this building and to cut the doors higher to admit the trolleys which extend to the wires above the cars.

Stretching the Trolley Wires.
   A gang of men is to-day engaged in putting up the trolley wires for the new electric railroad. It is done very rapidly. A start was made at the E., C. & N. station this morning and about three-fourths of a mile will be up before night. A huge derrick and platform mounted on a wagon forms a place for the men to work upon who are attaching it to the cross wires. A pair of horses moves this along as rapidly as is desired. A second team with the reel of copper wire precedes the derrick and furnishes the wire as fast as it is needed. A great crowd of spectators is all the time watching the work with interest.

The New Electric Cars.
   Workmen are to-day engaged in laying a railroad track in the yards of the Cortland Omnibus and Cab Co. upon which to run out the new electric cars that are to be delivered in a day or two to the Cortland and Homer Traction Co. The car tracks on Railroad and Church-sts. and Clinton-ave. which have not yet been used and which will be put into use very soon are being cleared from snow.
   A mail and baggage car that has been used for a short time at Ithaca this morning arrived in town on a flat car on the E., C. & N. R. R. and was this afternoon run up to the car barns.

Sleighride to Higginsville.
   Thirty-two couples left Cortland at 5:30 o'clock yesterday afternoon in three large sleighs and a number of private rigs for Higginsville, where they arrived at 6:30 o'clock and found a fine supper awaiting them, Daniels' orchestra furnished music for dancing, which was indulged in till 11 o'clock, when the party left for home, arriving here after a most delightful ride at midnight.

   —The coal business on the D., L. & W. is showing quite an increase.
   —Geneva wants to be a city. They will make application to the present legislature.
   —The Empire club will meet this evening to make arrangements for its entertainment.
   —Sheriff Hilsinger made his first arrest last night in placing P. J. Collins in the jail to sober up. Justice Bull sentenced him to three days or three dollars and, not having the latter, he is serving the former.
   —At the annual meeting of the C. A. A. last evening an amount of routine business was disposed of. Messrs. Harry Lucas, C. E Rowley and F. B. Lampman were appointed a finance committee for the ensuing year.
   —The monthly bulletin of the New York state board of health, for November 1894, just issued, gives only five villages or cities in the state a lower death rate for that month than Cortland. Either our climate must be very healthful, or our citizens very tough, or our doctors very good—or perhaps all these three agencies combine to make Cortland one of the most healthful as well as one of the most beautiful villages in the state.

Saturday, November 18, 2017


Master Workman J. R. Sovereign.

Cortland Evening Standard, Wednesday, January 9, 1895.

Refuse to Pay Their Per Capita Taxes. Proceedings to Be Commenced Against
Master Workman Sovereign—Dubois Strike Situation Unchanged—Debs and
His Associates Lodged In Jail—Their Case to Be Appealed.
   PHILADELPHIA, Jan. 9.—The Press says today: Following the action of District Assembly 16, Knights of Labor of Lackawanna county, in sending out the resolutions adopted at the last session of that body in Scranton four weeks ago, a number of trades and district assemblies have resolved to pay no more per capita tax to maintain the present general officers of the order.
   District Assembly 117 of Albany is one of the list.
   The figures show a membership of 60,287 arrayed against the present administration.
   Secretary Hayes claims a bonafide membership in the order of 65,000. Local Assembly 3,639, New York city, and several others have already returned their charters.
   Invitations have been sent to all the national, state and district assemblies by Secretary McBryde of the miners, requesting them to be represented at Columbus next month and co-operate with the miners and glassworkers in rescuing the order from the hands of those now in control of its affairs.
   At this meeting, it is stated, action will be taken authorizing one of the most eminent lawyers in the city to proceed against General Master Workman Sovereign and his board for the recovery of the per capita tax paid by National Trades Assembly 135 to Secretary Hayes during the past year, and for the mileage of the six delegates who were refused admission to the general assembly at New Orleans. All this amounts to several thousand dollars.

Eugene T. Debs' Case.
   CHICAGO, Jan. 9.—Eugene V. Debs, president of the American Railway union, and seven members of the legislative committee who were found guilty of contempt by Judge Woods of the United States court, were surrendered to the custody of Marshal Arnold and locked up in the marshal's private office. Counsel for the prisoners decided not to contest the case any further before the circuit court, but will on Saturday of this week ask the supreme court of the United States at Washington for a habeas corpus. On this application, whether it is granted or not, they will have the right to take an appeal, and on this appeal may secure the liberation of the prisoners on bail pending a hearing. Judge Grosscup of the federal court overruled a motion to quash the indictment for conspiracy against the prisoners.
   Seven of the men convicted of contempt by Judge Woods left Chicago in charge of Chief Deputy Marshal John Donnelly to serve out their sentences in the Woodstock jail of McHenry county. The party was made up of Eugene V. Debs, L. W. Rogers, Sylvester Keliher, James Hogan, W. E. Burns, R. M. Goodwin and George W. Howard.
   Shortly after the adjournment of the court Mr. Gregory, one of the counsel for the defendants secured a conference with Woods and, representing the Cook county jail to be overcrowded, requested the court to change the order to confinement to some other county jail.
   Judge Woods then directed that the men be taken to the McHenry county jail.
   Mr. Darrow will not leave for Washington until Thursday with an application for a writ of habeas corpus before the supreme court.
   Mr. Walker said that the government would be represented at the hearing before whatever justice Mr. Darrow took his writ by Attorney General Olney.

Eugene V. Debs.
Goes to Jail, but Sends a Communication to the People.
   WOODSTOCK, Ill., Jan. 9.—Eugene V. Debs, George Howard, Sylvester Keliher, Louis W. Rogers, Wm. E. Burns, Jas. Hogan and Leroy Goodwin are confined in McHenry county jail. Last night as he sat in what Cook county prisoners would consider a palace, Mr. Debs issued a manifesto to the American people which contains the following:
   In going to jail for participation in the late [Pullman] strike we have no apologies to make nor regrets to express. No ignominy attaches to us on account of this sentence. I would not change places with Judge Woods, and if it is expected that six months, or even six years, in jail will purge me of contempt, the punishment will fail of its purpose.
   Candor compels me to characterize the whole proceeding as infamous. It is not calculated to revive the rapidly failing confidence of the American people in the federal judiciary. There is not a scrap of testimony to show that one of us violated any law whatsoever. And if we are guilty of conspiracy why are we punished for contempt?
   I would a thousand times rather be accountable for the strike than for the decision. We are by chance the mere instrumentalities in the evolutionary processes in operation through which industrial slavery is to be abolished and economic freedom established. Then the Starry Banner will symbolize, as it was designed to symbolize, social, political, religious and economic emancipation from the thraldom of tyranny, oppression and degradation.

Stamford in the Catskills Tries an Experiment.
   A dispatch from Stamford, N. Y., says, this thriving town has a telephone service that is an anomaly. There is not a "kicker" among its subscribers. Such an extraordinary condition of affairs cannot be ascribed to anything in the atmosphere of the Catskills, but is due to the fact that the service costs each patron only $8 a year.
   The moving spirit in this society is Dr. S. E. Churchill. It occurred to the doctor last fall, in the midst of his manifold affairs, which include an interest in the local newspaper, the athletic club, the bank, the seminary and the Presbyterian church, that the town needed a telephone service. Twenty residents were called together, who agreed to subscribe $50 each toward forming a company.
   The central office of the Stamford Telephone company is in one of the village stores, the proprietor of which is a salaried officer of the company. For $100 a year he guarantees, as general manager, to break away from the charmed circle around the stove in the midst of the most entertaining gossip, or cut short a political discussion even when he has his opponent all but convinced, and attend to the switch at every tinkle of the bell.

Celebrated by Mr. and Mrs. Abner Johnson, Jan. 1, at Lapeer.
   Mr. and Mrs. Abner Johnson on Tuesday, Jan. 1, celebrated the fortieth anniversary of their marriage by entertaining a party of their friends at their home in Lapeer. The afternoon was pleasantly spent in reminiscence of the past until 3 o'clock when a sumptuous dinner was served. After returning to the parlor the company were favored with some nice church music on the organ by Miss Hattie Butts, assisted by A. E. Ladd. Mr. and Mrs. Johnson were the recipients of some very handsome presents as mementoes of the happy occasion, all of which were presented by Mr. Eugene Ryan in a few well selected remarks in behalf of the guests. The host feelingly responded to these.
   Those present were Mr. and Mrs. A. E. Ladd, Mr. and Mrs. George P. Dann, Mr. and Mrs. Eugene Ryan, Mr. and Mrs. Edgar L. Parker, Mr. and Mrs. Royal L. Johnson, Mr. and Mrs. Smith A. Johnson, Mr. and Mrs. Thomas Parker, Mr. and Mrs. Darias J. Dann, Mr. Ruben Butts, Miss Grace Parker, Miss Clarie Hill, Mr. Ward A. Johnson.

A Butter Record.
   Donald Munro has a cow in which he takes great pride. The cow has been milking nearly a year and will again come in milk early in March, 1895. Mr. Munro has just given her a seventeen days' test for butter. The first seven days she made 6 lbs. 1 oz. of butter; in the next six days 5 lbs. 7 oz.; in the last four days 3 lbs. 10 oz.
   The cow is not of high blood, but is a common grade animal. She is coming six years old and has had two calves. She is fed one pint of corn meal, one quart of middlings and two quarts of bran per day, besides a peach basket of cabbages night and morning.

Program of the Week's Exercises—Commencement Appointments—List of Graduates.
   The forty-eighth commencement which will close the fifty-second term of the Cortland State Normal and Training school will occur in the Cortland Opera House at 10 o'clock on the morning of Friday, Feb. 1. The following is the general program of exercises:
   Final examinations begin 1:15 P. M., Friday, Jan. 25.
   Second annual public exercises of the Alpha Delta society, 8 P. M., Saturday, Jan 26.
   Fifth annual public exercises of the Clionian Fraternity, 8 P. M., Monday, Jan 28.
   Fourth annual public exercises of the Corlonor Fraternity, 8 P. M., Tuesday, Jan. 29.
   Nineteenth annual public exercises of the Gamma Sigma Fraternity, 8 P. M., Wednesday, Jan. 30.
   Fourteenth annual public exercises of the Y. M. D. C, 8 P. M., Thursday, Jan. 31.
   Baccalaureate sermon, 7:30 P. M., Sunday, Jan. 27, Liston H. Pearce, D. D.
   Final examinations close, 4 P. M., Wednesday, Jan. 30.
   Books returned, 9 A. M., Thursday, Jan. 31.
   Return fare paid, 9 A. M., Thursday, Jan. 31.
   Standing read, 1:30 P. M., Thursday, Jan. 31.
   Commencement in the Opera House, 10 A. M„ Friday, Feb. 1.
   Principal's reception in the Normal parlors, 8 P. M., Friday, Feb. 1.
   The class numbers twenty members, six being from the classical course, one from the scientific course and thirteen from the English course. They are as follows:
   Classical Course.
   Mabel Sadie Howes, Cortland.
   Lena Elizabeth Dalton, Cortland.
   Mary Ellen Wilcox, Trumansburg.
   Harriet Viola Webster, McLean.
   Almond Lucian Clark, Cortland.
   Thomas Hart DeCoudres, McLean.
   Scientific Course.
   Nellie Laurilla Conable, Cortland.
   English Course.
   Nellie Eva Bosely, Spencer.
   Mrs. Jennie Christy Cooke, New York City.
   Caroline Belle Fletcher, Cortland.
   Anna Elizabeth Fletcher, Cortland.
   Alta Marion Keeler, Truxton.
   Harriet Maria Kinner, Cazenovia.
   Mary Elethia McGarry, Moose River.
   Elizabeth Sebring, Lodi.
   Harry Alanson Oday, Messengcrville.
   Albert James Sears, Cortland.
   Freeman Reid Spaulding, Munnsville.
   Charles Smith Wright, Preble.
   Nellie Amelia Graham (academic), Cortland.
   The list of commencement appointments have been made and they are as follows: Nellie Eva Bosely, Mrs. Jennie C. Cooke, Alta Marion Keeler, Mary Ellen Wilcox, Harriet Viola Webster, Almond L, Clark, Freeman Reid Spaulding and Charles S. Wright.

Cortland Opera House on Groton Avenue.
"Drawing Cards" To-night.
   The popular craze in amusement circles now is for vaudeville. Society has taken it quite enthusiastically, and vaudeville sayings and vaudeville songs are on the lips of the swell set, as well as on the "gallery gods." A good vaudeville show is an attraction that holds its own against almost any opposition.
   Manager Rood has watched the development of the public taste in this respect and by catering to it has his Opera House always well patronized. For to-night's attraction he has secured Fields & Hanson's "Drawing Cards," and the roster of the combination shows names to charm with.
   Fields and Hanson promise some exceedingly fine music at their performance this evening. It will be in charge of the leader of the Wieting opera house orchestra of Syracuse, assisted by the second violinist of the same orchestra and by local musicians.

   —The Alpha Chautauqua circle will meet with Mrs. M. O. Clark, 67 Madison-st., Monday evening, Jan. 14.
  —The case of The People vs. Phoebe Japhett has been adjourned in police court till 1:30 P. M. January 22.
   —Cortland Council, No. 1,445, Royal Arcanum, will install their officers tonight at 7:30 o'clock in Vesta lodge rooms.
   —The Fortnightly club met this afternoon with Misses Belle and Maud Fitzgerald. They continue the study of "Othello."
   —Fields & Hanson's Drawing Cards company arrived in town from Syracuse on the 10 o'clock train this morning and are stopping at the Messenger [House].
   —The annual meeting and election of officers of the Excelsior Hook & Ladder Co. will be held at 7:30 sharp tonight in their rooms in Fireman's hall.
   —The funeral of Mrs. Elnora B. Horton will be held from her late home, 65 Maple-ave. at 10:30 o'clock Thursday morning. The remains will be taken to Truxton for burial.
   —A dispatch from Syracuse says the annual meeting of the New York State association for the protection of fish, game and forest, will be held in that city on Thursday, Jan. 10, instead of Jan. 18, as announced.
   —The funeral of Mrs. Harriet Woodford will be held at 4:30 o'clock to-morrow afternoon from the home of her daughter, Mrs. Frank Crandall, 8 East Main-st. The remains will be taken Friday to Pompey for burial.
   —An interesting outline and summary of the work of the Lexow legislative committee in the investigation of corruption in New York City will be found on the third page of to-day's issue. It should be read by every one.
   —Charles Bennett of Cortland had the ends of two fingers of his left hand crushed at the hoe factory near Clinton-st. yesterday morning. Dr. L. H. Hills, who was called dressed the injuries and hopes to save both fingers Binghamton Republican.

Thursday, November 16, 2017


Cortland Evening Standard, Saturday, January 5, 1895.

Arraigned, Pleaded not Guilty and Waved Examination.
   Mrs. Adelia Phelps was yesterday afternoon arrested at her home in Solon by Deputy Sheriff James Edwards on a warrant issued by Coroner George D. Bradford, charged with administering the poison which caused the death of her husband, Loren Phelps. She was brought to Cortland and was lodged in jail. She occupies a cell at the south east corner of the jail on the second floor. She was this morning brought before Coroner Bradford at police headquarters and was arraigned. Riley Champlin appeared for her and District Attorney Burlingame appeared for the people. She pleaded not guilty and waived examination to await the action of the grand jury which meets next week.
   A STANDARD reporter this afternoon called upon Mrs. Phelps at the jail and asked her if she had anything to say. Her reply was, "I am not guilty of course, but beyond that I will say nothing at present." She added a moment later that she had retained Attorneys James Dougherty and H. L. Bronson as her counsel. Mr. Champlin had acted for her so far but would not any more.
   Deputy Edwards informed the reporter that when he went to make the arrest he found Mrs. Phelps and her daughter alone at the house. Mrs. Phelps was knitting. He told her in as mild language as possible of his disagreeable errand. She did not seem much surprised or much moved, but her daughter burst into tears and sobbed bitterly. The son appeared on the scene before his mother left, but seemed perfectly indifferent to the fact that she was under arrest and was going to jail.
   Mrs. Phelps this afternoon sent a telegram to friends in Pennsylvania informing them of her arrest.

The Farmers' Institute.
   The session of the Farmers' institute has been continued to-day and the court house has been crowded. H. E. Cook of Denmark [New York] occupied the whole morning in a discussion of the subject "The Silo in Connection with the Production of Milk." The paper by George H. Hyde of Cortland on "Potatoes as a by-Product" was left over until this afternoon. The other papers of the afternoon are "Small Fruits for the Farmer" by F. A. Converse of Woodville, and "Possibilities for the Educated Farmer" by Fred M. Sheerar of South Cortland.

Address of Welcome by Henry Howes at the Farmers' Institute.
   Gentlemen of the Institute:
   We welcome you to our beautiful village with its many churches, its printing presses, its halls of learning which are sending their rays of knowledge to lighten up the whole world. We welcome you in the name of the Patrons of Husbandry, whose hearts beat in unison with all members of our order, and also in behalf of the farmers of Cortland county whose thirst for knowledge into the hidden mysteries is unlimited.
   It has become necessary for the farmers of this state to decide for themselves a matter of great importance. That question is whether they shall continue on in the old-fashioned haphazard way of doing everything without any particular method and succeeding or failing as luck would have it, or whether on the other hand, they shall go about this matter and educate themselves as they would educate a son or daughter, not after the school of 1810 or 1820, but in the progressive school of 1895.
   We, the farmers of Cortland, propose to take the latter position, hoping thereby to increase our knowledge in the various branches of our business and to become as far as is possible thorough progressive farmers, and we wish to take part in your institute as students ready and willing to learn.

Began Friday at the Courthouse in Cortland.
   The New York State Agricultural Society's farmers' institute opened at 10:30 o'clock this morning at the courthouse with a hearty address of welcome by Mr. Henry Howes of Cuyler. It was responded to by an excellent speech from Mr. F. A. Converse of Woodville, Jefferson county.
   He was followed by Mr. E. Van Alstyne, of Kinderhook, who ably discussed the question "Can the farmer use commercial fertilizers in connection with farm manure profitably?"
   The last period was devoted to a most timely article by Lloyd F. Rice of Homer. His subject was "How shall we improve our country roads?" He showed the particulars of construction of macadamized roads and concluded that they were advantageous on main lines of travel, but too expensive for ordinary roads. The remainder of his discourse was devoted to advocating the wide tire.
   The subjects under discussion this afternoon are "Small fruits for the farmer" by Mr. F. A. Converse of Woodville and "Is it practical to use the separator on the farm?"
   The program for to-night will include music by the glee club, a paper, "Stick to the farm," by Mrs. S. S. Hammond, a recitation by Miss Fannie M. Galusha and another paper on "Practical Poultry Keeping," by Mr. J. E. Rice of Yorktown.
   To-morrow morning Mr. H. E. Cook of Denmark will discuss the subject "The Silo in Connection With the Production of Milk" and "Potatoes as a by-Product" by Mr. George H. Hyde of Cortland.
   One of the articles Saturday afternoon will be ''Possibilities for the Educated Farmer" by Mr. Fred M. Sheerar of South Cortland.
   A question box is used at the opening of each session. Mr. George A. Smith is director. Headquarters are made at the Cortland House. Nearly every seat in the courthouse was occupied at both this morning and this afternoon's sessions.

Horses and delivery wagon stuck in mud.
An Excellent Paper by Lloyd P. Rice of Homer at the Farmers' Institute in Cortland.
   How shall we improve our country roads? The demand for better roads is now heard on every side. The rapidly increasing army which spin over the highways on bicycles, the multitude who ride over them in light vehicles for purposes of business or pleasure, the farmers who use them in transporting their produce to market all agree as to the desirability of a very material improvement in the condition of our country roads, and this renders specially pertinent in this connection the famous question of Mr. Tweed, "What are you going to do about it?"
   A very common answer is, buy a stone crusher. Excellent as broken stone is as a road material when properly used, it is to be feared that its use under the supervision of the average pathmaster would result in failure. Macadamized roads cannot be made by putting broken stone into the mud. An essential condition is that the material be free from dirt and standing water. The principle on which their construction depends is that fragments of stone when their surfaces are brought into close contact will bind themselves together into a solid mass. Any dirt or foreign substance mixed with the stone will prevent this close contact and interfere with the consolidation.
   The foundation should be prepared in the shape which it is desired the surface of the road should have and be packed hard. Broken stone placed upon and pressed down into soft dirt is practically wasted. The material should then be spread evenly over the foundation in layers and each layer consolidated.
   This leads to the use of another machine equally important with the stone crusher—-the roller. Not a land roller, weighing ten or fifteen hundred pounds, but a road roller, preferably driven by steam and weighing ten or fifteen tons, and costing three or four thousand dollars. It is true that if the public could be induced to drive over newly laid broken stone, the steam roller might be dispensed with, but, if we may judge by the way a new gravel road is avoided, people would drive around a piece of newly laid macadam until the road everywhere else became impassable and then they would drive on it and roll the stone down into the mud. The building of macadamized roads to the best advantage then involves the investment at the outset of four or five thousand dollars in special machinery.
   To macadamize a mile of road ten feet wide and six inches thick would require one thousand cubic yards of stone weighing about two thousand tons. This would employ a ten-horse power stone crusher from ten to twenty days, depending upon the quality of the stone and the skill with which it was managed. The qualities desirable in stone for road covering are hardness, toughness and ability to withstand the weather. Of the stone to be found in this vicinity these qualities are probably found in the highest degree in the common boulders and cobble stones to be found in the fields.
   So much depends upon the local circumstances that it is impossible to estimate accurately the cost of macadamizing roads, but under the most favorable conditions, where suitable stones can be found in the fields and can be had delivered at the roadside free, it is difficult to see how it can be done for less than a thousand dollars per mile. Nevertheless nearly all authorities agree that for our main highways this is the best, and, all things considered, the most economical method of improving our country roads.
   It is found by experiment that on a level road the force required to move a vehicle on a macadamized road is only one third that required on a gravel road and only one-seventh that required on soft dirt. On a road where thirty loaded teams pass per day going at the rate of three miles per hour, each team would spend twenty minutes on each mile which would be equal to the constant labor of one team for ten hours to haul the traffic over a mile of road, which at $3 per day for team and driver for two hundred days in the year would be $600 for team work on a mile of road. If by macadamizing the road the force required to move the vehicles could be reduced to one-third, there would be a saving of four hundred dollars a mile for team work in each year as compared with a gravel road.
   Single towns however cannot afford to purchase the needed machinery or to spend upon their highways a sufficient sum to keep the machinery in operation. A stone crusher working for six months will prepare material for ten or twelve miles of road, involving the expenditure of at least an equal number of thousand dollars. If our roads are to be improved in this manner, it can evidently be best done under the county system, the county purchasing the machinery, taking charge of the main market roads of the county and putting them in charge of a skilled road engineer, and when the steam roller was not in use on the county roads it could by some arrangement be used to great advantage on the roads which remain under the charge of the town authorities. That abomination, a new road, could by the use of a heavy roller be speedily put in such condition that it would not vex the soul of the traveler and at very much less expenditure of time and patience than when done by carriages, buggies and bicycles.
   Fortunately in the case of dirt and gravel roads there is a comparatively cheap and very efficient substitute for the steam roller—heavily loaded vehicles with wide tires. There is probably nothing which in proportion to the expense involved would do more to improve our roads than the general use of wide tires for all heavy traffic. Our wagons in common use seem designed with a special view to injury to the road bed. The tires are two inches wide or less and these are soon rounded at the corners so as to present a bearing surface of from an inch to an inch and a half, which after every rain cuts the road into ruts and these ruts are almost of necessity followed and worn deeper by every passing team. A wagon with tires sufficiently wide, on the contrary, would not rut the road, but would act as a roller, making the surface hard and smooth, better able to resist the action of water and more pleasant for light vehicles. It is a mistake to suppose that wide wheels are of heavier draft than narrow ones. They are in some particulars at a slight disadvantage in this respect. In going through soft mud on a hard bottom the wide wheel must push out of the way more mud than a narrow one, and on a rough road the wide wheel will encounter more obstacles than a narrow one, but a wide wheel will often stay on the surface when a narrow one would sink into it thus more than balancing any disadvantage.
   In this reform, however, as in many others the lot of the pioneer is one of hardship. When a road has been cut into ruts with narrow tires, it is almost impassable for wide ones, the ruts cannot be avoided, but must be followed. The wheels are too wide to sink to the bottom, but grind along on the sides, improving the road, but tiring the team and a man must have an extraordinary amount of public spirit to convert his wagon into a roller to repair the damages caused by others.
   Our present law which grants a rebate of one-half the highway tax to the amount of four dollars for the exclusive use of wide tires for heavy loads is good so far as it goes, but it doesn't go far enough. Whether we are to bring about the use of wide tires by means of rewards or penalties, they should be sufficient to accomplish the purpose. A farmer having a farm large enough to incur a highway tax of eight dollars would earn his four dollars many times over if he were to drag all his heavy loads on wide tires through ruts made by narrow ones.
   The use of narrow tires should be prohibited when the roads are in condition to be damaged by them. It is a maxim of law and morals that he who enjoys a public privilege should not use it in such a way as to interfere with its enjoyment by others. Those who wish to use the highways for light vehicles have as unquestionable a right to that privilege as those who use them for heavy traffic, and they who use them for heavy traffic have no right to cause them so easily avoidable damage.
   This reform is no exception to the rule that any improvement is accompanied by hardship. The introduction of the power loom rendered useless thousands of hand looms and threw out of employment thousands of hand weavers. When the city of London was first lighted with gas it was vehemently opposed in parliament on account of the injury to the whale fishing industry. The general introduction of cable and electric cars in the streets of our cities has made common horses almost unsalable. Notwithstanding all this, power looms and gas, and cable and electric cars have added immensely to the sum of human comfort and enjoyment. If the use of wide tires for heavy loads were enforced by law, some narrow tires might go rather prematurely to the scrap heap, but heavy loads would draw ever our highways easier than they do at present; our roads would be kept in better order than now with half the expenditure, and those who use them for light vehicles would not find them almost impassable by reason of ruts for half the year.

Five Hours Spent To-day in Investigating.
   The inquest into the death of Christopher Benson, who was struck by an E., C. & N passenger engine on Thursday, Dec. 27, opened at his late home on Railroad-st, at 10:45 o'clock this morning. The jurors were A. B. Gates, Patrick Dwyer, John Mack, Clinton Stanton, A. T. Smith and Peter Cowley.
   The witnesses who were called were Dr. H. O. Jewett, who made the examination of the body after it was brought to the house, Frank Byrn, the engineer who was on the engine which struck him. Thomas Lynch, the conductor in charge of the train, Patrick H. Kiernan, the E., C. & N. yardmaster and Patrick Clancy, the roadmaster, the latter two being members of the searching party, which did not succeed in finding the body in the morning, and Mr. James Benson, the deceased man's son, who found his father while taking his dinner to him.
   A deposition from Mr. Thomas J. McEvoy, who was the first to discover the body, was read and placed in evidence. The inquest did not adjourn for dinner and it was 2:45 this afternoon before the jury retired.

   —The Bible class meets at 8 o'clock to-night in the Y. M. C. A. rooms.
   —The Chautauqua circle will meet this evening at 7:30 with Miss Norton on Railroad-ave.
   —All are cordially invited to attend the prayer meeting in Good Templars' hall, Sunday afternoon at 3 o'clock.
   —Mr. J. N. Meaker of the Normal school will preach in Memorial chapel on Sunday afternoon at 4 o'clock. All are cordially invited.
   —There will be a bear hunt in Candor Jan. 9, 1895. Frank Norton will let a black bear loose that day. Hunters of Binghamton, Owego, Waverly, Elmira, Cortland and Ithaca are invited. For further particulars address Frank J. Norton, Candor, N. Y.—Ithaca Chronicle.